Children's names are an excellent source of examples for initial activities. The Name Match can be used in circle time or outside, with a group large enough to include a wide variety of examples, or with a small group (chosen by the teacher in advance) to practice only a few phonemes.
To provide children with practice in identifying initial sounds in words which are meaningful to each child.
• List of teachers’ first names, organized by phonemes
1. Create a list with the names of your teachers and the phoneme that represents the first sound in his or her name.
2. Have one teacher stand in front of the group. Ask the teacher if he or she sees someone else whose name begins with the same sound. If the teacher is correct, have the other person stand. If not, ask if anyone else in the group has a name that begins with the same sound.
3. When a match is made, have those teachers sit together, and ask another teacher to come forward. Continue matching names until all teachers whose names have the same initial phonemes are sitting together.
4. If some teachers have names with initial phonemes that do not match those of anyone else in the class, see if he or she can find an object or a picture in the room whose name has the same initial sound.
5. If anyone still doesn't have a match, ask the teacher if they know anyone with a matching name or have them make up a name that would match.
6. Have teacher s figure out the number of initial sounds that are represented by their names by counting the number of groups that were formed.
7. Teachers then work individually (or in pairs). Have them choose one of their classes and create a similar list (2 to 3) of name match of the initial sounds of their students. They then share to the group.
Dictogloss is a teaching procedure that involves the normal-speed dictation of a short text to a small group (4 – 5) of language students. The students take notes during the reading of the text.
Then, working in small groups, they piece together (reconstruct) the text as a cooperative endeavour. This is achieved by pooling the group’s notes and making grammatical decisions about the text. No dictionaries are to be used.
Finally, after each group has produced its own version of the text, the whole class gathers and the different versions are analysed, discussed and corrected.
1.Choosing the text
·The teacher chooses an appropriate text, perhaps practising a particular grammar point, involving vocabulary to review or on a particular theme / topic
·Text-book texts may be used
·Texts may be simplified first
·A picture helps the process greatly.
·3 – 5 sentences long. Cohesive across sentences. Longer texts can be used with more advanced groups.
·brainstorm possible vocabulary from the title and picture
·pre-teach unfamiliar content words
·students should be seated in their groups and be quite clear of the nature and aims of the task (perhaps need to explain the method in L1)
B.FIRST DICTATION PHASE
·The text is read at normal speed
·2 readings – during the first reading students listen without writing anything – during the second reading they write down content words as they are heard on their own paper – it is important that each member of the group writes down as much as he/she can understand, in order to participate in the group reconstruction
·students pool their notes and construct a text – not trying to re-create the original text, but to produce a group text which is grammatically correct, contains the same information and is cohesive.
·one final dictation (third dictation) at normal speed, during which students attempt to add further content words to their first list
·students reconstruct a final group text on a large piece of poster paper and on an OHP transparency
D.ANALYSIS AND CORRECTION
·all texts are placed on the wall for other groups to read
·texts are then corrected for grammar and meaning, or teacher can collect the final texts and use as a base for remedial grammar teaching
ADVANTAGES OF THE DICTOGLOSS METHOD
·can be used in any cultural setting, with any language and with any level of student
·teaches grammar in context and in response to need in a particular situation
·motivating for students and teachers
·communicative – to complete the task, the students must work cooperatively and use language (discussion, negotiation) – inevitably, some L1 will be used, but keeo this to a minimum
·exposure to the concept of a text, on which many modern language curricula are based
Wajnyrb, Ruth 1990, Grammar Workout: The Dictogloss Method of Language Teaching: a text-based communicative approach to grammar
Traditional Narratives: fairy tales, folk tales, myths and legends, parables, fables, moral tales
Modern narratives: science fiction, adventure, mysteries, heroes and villains, cartoons, horror stories, realistic fiction.
Structure of Narrative Texts
Writer sets the scene for the story, informing the reader of the time, place and main characters of the story. Often gives an idea of the action to follow. For beginning writers, this would be one or two sentences.
Something goes wrong or a problem arises. This usually involves the main character and one or more of the minor characters. This is the part of the text which makes the story interesting, by developing problem situations which can then be resolved.
What went wrong in the story?Why did it happen?
Which characters were involved?
This is where the problem or complication is resolved. The events and characters return to normal in a satisfying way. However, there can be an unhappy resolution.
How was the problem solved?Who solved it?
How did they solve it?
4.Re-orientation (or Coda)
Optional. The reader is made aware of how the characters have changed and what they have learned from dealing with the complication and its resolution. It may be written in the form of a moral to a story (such as in a fable).
Language Features of Narrative Texts
·use of the simple past tense
·contain characters which may be human, animal, realistic or imaginary
·sequence of events shown through the use of conjunctions (‘joining words’) which build up relationships of time, addition, cause (eg because, so)
·can be written in the first person (I, we) or the third person (he, she, they) Some may use the passive voice.
·descriptive adjectives are used to enhance the visual imagery
·use of adverbs and adverbial phrases
·use a variety of verbs to refer to a character’s actions and thoughts (think, feel, do)
·when dialogue is included in a narrative, it involves a change of tense: eg When he got home, he walked in the front door and went through to the kitchen. “Trish, what are you doing here?” he said. (He asked Trish what she was doing there?)
Equipment:grapheme cards, - one for each child, alliteration cards
§Children sit in circle, give every child a card which is placed on the floor in front of them.
§Each child identifies their phoneme (sound), with help from others if necessary.
§Teacher looks at an alliteration card and calls out the subjects (e.g. whales in the water)
§Child with corresponding grapheme card calls out the sound and holds up their card.
Noughts and crossesAim: grapheme identification
Equipment: whiteboard, 3 coloured markers
§Divide class into 2 groups (e.g. name them 2 different colours), and sit them apart.
§In black, draw a noughts & crosses grid and write in 9 graphemes/digraphs.
§A member from first team calls out a phoneme from the square he wants to go first.
§Someone else from his team has to call out a word with a corresponding initial sound.
§Teacher then rubs out the grapheme and replaces it with a smiley face in that team’s colour.
§Continue with other team until either team win by winning 3 smiley faces in a row.
Stepping StonesAim: grapheme identification
§Place cards in a large circle
§Children step from card to card while singing “walk around and find a sound, …………………What will I stop on?”
§Going round the circle, each child jumps back off their card and immediately calls out the sound.
Say a soundAim: grapheme & initial sound identification
§Hold up alliteration card while children sing the rhyme
§Starting with the adult, everyone has to think of something beginning with the sound on the card
Find a soundAim: grapheme & initial sound identification
Equipment:grapheme cards in a box
§Children sit in a circle
§The box of cards are passed around the circle while singing: “pass the sound box round and round etc ……… what can you find?”
§Child identifies the phoneme and then finds something in the room beginning with that sound and places the card next to the object/ brings it back to the circle
Who can cross the river?Aim: grapheme identification & cvc blending
Equipment:white board, marker pens
§Draw a river across the board. Write 3 letters at the top(ones which make up a cvc word)
§Draw a crocodile in theriver and a child’s name next to the cvc word
§Sing “who can cross the river, who can cross the river, who can cross the river and reach the other side?”
§Child has to identify sounds and blend to make the cvc word
§When child is successful, then sing “…………………has crossed the river …………… and reached the other side”.Write child’s name on other side of river.
§ALTERNATIVE VERSION:lay out 2 ropes to represent river. Place 3 carpet squares as stepping stones across the river, place 3 grapheme cards - one on each carpet square.
§Child sounds out the phonemes as s/he steps across the river, then blends the sounds together to hear the word.
Pairs Aim: graphemeidentification
Equipment:grapheme cards - 2 sets (select no more than 5- 8 different letters)
§Sit children in horse shoe in front of you
§Identify phonemes with group as you hold up the cards, then place them upside down in a grid pattern in centre of horse shoe facing the children.
§Facing into the horse shoe so the group can all see, let each child turn over 3 cards, identifying phonemes as each card is turned over. Ensure cards are replaced in same position if not “won”.
§Wining cards are placed in front of successful children.
“Sound jump” game could be played at end of game.
Pick a letterAim: grapheme & initial sound identification
Equipment:grapheme cards, - one for each child, in a box
§Sit children in a circle and give first child the box.
§Child picks a card from the box, identifies phoneme (sound) and thinks of something beginning with that phoneme.
§Pass box to next child and repeat.Try to keep the pace fast.
I spy with my little eyeAim: grapheme & initial sound identification
Equipment:grapheme cards in a box, and objects/pictures with initial sounds to match graphemes.
§Sit children in a circle and place objects in centre.
§Give first child the box.
§Child picks a card from the box, and says, “I spy with my little eye something beginning with …… (says sound on card) and looks for a corresponding object. Collects object and places it with card in front of him.
Equipment:objects -with cvc construction ( in basket), the 5 vowel grapheme cards
§Sit children in horse shoe in front of you
§Identify vowel graphemes and place in horse shoe, facing children
§Pass basket of objects while singing abcdefg etc.Child holding basket on “z”, chooses an object, says its name then segments its sounds to identify its middle sound. The child then places the object underneath the correct vowel. Repeat until all objects have been placed.
§This game could be ended by writing the spelling of an object on board and asking a child to read the word by blending the sounds then collecting the object and placing it back in the basket.
This game could also be adapted to focus on initial or final sounds.
Give each child a grapheme card. You say a word and the child with the grapheme representing the initial sound must jump up before the other children point to it. If the children seem receptive to continuing, repeat with different selection of graphemes.
Alliteration Generation Aim:generation of alliteration words
Equipement: selection of objects to pass around circle and grapheme cards to match initial sounds, basket
·Lay objects in centre of circle and explain that the first child will pick a card from a pile handed to him (in a basket) identify the sound, then find the object which begins with the same sound. Encourage the group to call out other words, which begin with same sound.
·The object will then be passed around the circle with each child saying”……..(cat) begins with cer and …….(child thinks of another word which begins with the same sound) collar begins with cer. “
·The next child begins by repeating “cat begins with cer and (adds his own word)”. Words can be repeated.